CLASS 10 MATHS BEST HANDWRITTEN NOTES EVER!
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Shobhit Nirwan Class 10th Mathematics Notes With PYQs
Class 10th Mathematics Handwritten Notes by Shobhit Nirwan Complete Class X Science Notes With Previous Year Questions PDF Download.
|Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
|Introduction to Trigonometry
|Some Applications of Trigonometry
|Areas Related to Circles
|Surface Areas and Volumes
Chapter 1 Real Numbers
Topics: Euclid’s division lemma, Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic – statements after reviewing work done earlier and after illustrating and motivating through examples, Proofs of the irrationality of √2, √3, √5 Decimal representation of rational numbers in terms of terminating/non-terminating recurring decimals
Chapter 2 Polynomials
Topics: Zeros of a polynomial. Relationship between zeros and coefficients of quadratic polynomials. Statement and simple problems on division algorithms for polynomials with real coefficients.
Chapter 3 Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
Topics: Pair of linear equations in two variables and graphical method of their solution, consistency/inconsistency. Algebraic conditions for the number of solutions. The solution of a pair of linear equations in two variables algebraically – by substitution, by elimination, and by cross multiplication method. Simple situational problems. Simple problems on equations are reducible to linear equations.
Chapter 4 Quadratic Equations
Topics :Standard form of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, (a ≠ 0). Solutions of quadratic equations (only real roots) by factorization; and by using the quadratic formula. Relationship between discriminant and nature of roots. Situational problems based on quadratic equations related to day-to-day activities to be incorporated.
Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions
Topics: Motivation for studying Arithmetic Progression Derivation of the nth term and sum of the first n terms of A.P. and their application in solving daily life problems.
Chapter 6 Triangles
Topics : Definitions, examples, counter-examples of similar triangles.
- If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect the other two sides in distinct points, the other two sides are divided in the same ratio.
- If a line divides two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, the line is parallel to the third side.
- If in two triangles, the corresponding angles are equal, their corresponding sides are proportional and the triangles are similar.
- If the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional, their corresponding angles are equal and the two triangles are similar.
- If one angle of a triangle is equal to one angle of another triangle and the sides including these angles are proportional, the two triangles are similar.
- If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right angle of a right triangle to the hypotenuse, the triangles on each side of the perpendicular are similar to the whole triangle and to each other.
- The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the squares of their corresponding sides.
- In a right triangle, the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.
- In a triangle, if the square on one side is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides, the angle opposite to the first side is a right angle.
Chapter 7 Coordinate Geometry
Topics :Review: Concepts of coordinate geometry, graphs of linear equations. Distance formula. Section formula (internal division). Area of a triangle.
Chapter 8 Introduction to Trigonometry
Topics: Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right-angled triangle. Proof of their existence (well defined); motivate the ratios whichever are defined at 0o and 90o. Values of the trigonometric ratios of 300, 450 and 600. Relationships between the ratios. Proof and applications of the identity sin2A + cos2A = 1. Only simple identities to be given. Trigonometric ratios of complementary angles.
Chapter 9 Some Applications of Trigonometry
Topics: Simple problems with heights and distances. Problems should not involve more than two right triangles. Angles of elevation/depression should be only 30°, 45°, or 60°.
Chapter 10 Circles
Topics: Tangent to a circle at, a point of contact.
- (Prove) The tangent at any point of a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact.
- (Prove) The lengths of tangents drawn from an external point to a circle are equal
Chapter 11 Constructions
Topics: Division of a line segment in a given ratio (internally).
- Tangents to a circle from a point outside it.
- Construction of a triangle similar to a given triangle.
Chapter 12 Areas Related to Circles
Topics: Motivate the area of a circle; area of sectors and segments of a circle. Problems based on areas and perimeter/circumference of the above-said plane figures. (In calculating the area of a segment of a circle, problems should be restricted to the central angle of 60°, 90°, and 120° only. Plane figures involving triangles, simple quadrilaterals, and circles should be taken.)
Chapter 13 Surface Areas and Volumes
- Surface areas and volumes of combinations of any two of the following: cubes, cuboids, spheres, hemispheres and right circular cylinders/cones. Frustum of a cone.
- Problems involving converting one type of metallic solid into another and other mixed problems. (Problems with combinations of not more than two different solids are taken).
Chapter 14 Statistics
Topics: Mean, median, and mode of grouped data (bimodal situation to be avoided). Cumulative frequency graph.
Chapter 15 Probability
Topics: The classical definition of probability. Simple problems on finding the probability of an event.